Romans Chapter 5

The Glorious Results of Justification by Faith: Peace With God, a Standing in Grace, Sure Hope of Coming Glory, Present Patience, Joy in God. Verses 1-11.

The Two Representative Men, Adam and Christ, Contrasted: Condemnation and Death by Adam to All in Him, Justification and Life by Christ to All in Him. Verses 12-19.

By the Law, Sin Became Trespass; but GRACE TRANSCENDED ALL! Verse 20.

Grace Now Reigns, “Through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Verse 21.

THIS GREAT CHAPTER naturally falls into two parts:

In the first eleven verses we have the blessed results of justification by faith, along with the most comprehensive statement in the Bible of the pure love and grace of God, in giving Christ for us sinners.

In the second part, verses 12 to 21, God goes back of the history and state of human sin, (which in Chapters 1:21 to 3:20 have been before us) to Adam, as our representative head, who stood for us, and whose sin became condemnation and death to us; and shows us Christ, as the other representative Man (whom Adam prefigured), by His act of death on the cross bringing us justification and life. The emphasis in this great passage will be in each case upon the fact that the act of the representative, and not of the one represented, brought the result to pass.

1 Therefore having been declared righteous on the principle of faith, we have peace towards God, through our Lord Jesus Christ: 2 through whom also we have obtained access into this Divine favor wherein we are standing: and we exult in hope of the glory of God. 3 And not only so, but we also exult in the tribulations [which beset us]: knowing that tribulation is working out endurance; 4 and endurance [a sense of] approvedness [by God]; and [the sense of] approvedness works out [a state of] hope: 5 and [our state of] hope does not make us ashamed: because God’s love [for us] is poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us.

6 For Christ, we being yet helpless [in our sins], at the appointed time died for ungodly ones. 7 For hardly for a righteous man will any one die: for perhaps for a good [generous] man some one might venture to die. 8 But God commends His own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us! 9 Much more then, having been now declared righteous by [means of] His blood, shall we be saved through Him from the [coming] wrath. 10 For if, being enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, being reconciled, shall we be saved by His [risen] life.

11 And not only so, but we even exult in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation.

Verse 1: Therefore having been declared righteous on the principle of faith—We must note at once that the Greek form of this verb “declared righteous,” or “justified,” is not the present participle, “being declared righteous,” but rather the aorist participle, “having been declared righteous,” or “justified.” You say. What is the difference? The answer is, “being declared righteous” looks to a state you are in; “having been declared righteous” looks back to a fact that happened. “Being in a justified state” of course is incorrect, confusing, as it does, justification and sanctification. “Whatsoever God doeth, it shall be forever.” The moment you believed, God declared you righteous, never to change His mind: as David says, “Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not reckon sin” (Rom. 4:8). If therefore you are a believer, quote this verse properly, and say, “Having been declared righteous on the principle of faith I have”—these blessed fruits and results which are now to be recorded.

The Epistle takes on a new aspect in each chapter: in Chapter Three, Christ was set forth as a propitiation for our sins; in Chapter Four, Christ was raised for our justification; in Chapter Five, we have peace with God through Christ, a standing in grace, and the hope of the coming glory.

We have three blessings, then, in this first part of our chapter: (1) peace with God, in looking back to Calvary where Christ made peace by His blood; (2) a present standing in grace, in unlimited Divine favor; and (3) hope of the glory of God—of being glorified with Christ when He comes.

We have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ—“Peace” means that the war is done. “Peace with God” means that God has nothing against us. This involves:

1. That God has fully Judged sin, upon Christ, our Substitute.

2. That God was so wholly satisfied with Christ’s sacrifice, that He will eternally remain so—never taking up the judgment of our sin again.

3. That God is therefore at rest about us forever, however poor our understanding of truth, however weak our walk. God is looking at the blood of Christ, and not at our sins. All claims against us were met when Christ “made peace by the blood of His cross.” So “we have peace with God.”103

“If Thou hast my discharge procured,

And freely in my place endured

The whole of wrath Divine:

Payment God will not twice demand,

First at my bleeding Surety’s hand,

And then again at mine!”

Our peace with God is not as between two nations before at war, but as between a king and rebellious and guilty subjects. While our hearts are at last at rest, it is because God, against whom we sinned, has been fully satisfied at the cross. “Peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” does not mean peace trough what He is now doing, but through what He did do on the Cross. He “made peace” by the blood of His cross. All the majesty of God’s holy and righteous throne was satisfied when Christ said, “It is finished.” And, being now raised from the dead, “He is our peace.” But it is His past work at Calvary, not His present work of intercession, that all is based upon; and that gives us a sense of the peace which He made through His blood.104

This peace with (or towards) God must not be confused with the “peace of God” of Philippians 4:7, which is a subjective state; whereas peace with God is an objective fact—outside of ourselves. Thousands strive for inward peace, never once resting where God is resting—in the finished work of Christ on Calvary.105

“I hear the words of love,

I gaze upon the blood;

I see the mighty Sacrifice,

And I have peace with God.

“ ’Tis everlasting peace,

Sure as Jehovah’s name;

’Tis stable as His stedfast throne,

For evermore the same.

“My love is oftimes low,

My joy still ebbs and flows;

But peace with Him remains the same,

No change Jehovah know.

“I change, He changes not,

God’s Christ can never die;

His love, not mine, the resting-place,

His truth, not mine, the tie.”

—(Bonar)

Verse 2: Look a moment at the second benefit: Through whom also we have had our access into this grace wherein we stand—The word “also” sets this blessing forth as distinct from and additional to that of peace with God. Through Christ, in whom they have believed, there has been given to the justified “access” into a wonderful standing in Divine favor. Being in Christ, they have extended to them the very favor in which Christ Himself stands. Notice that the words “by faith” (as in A.V.) here should be omitted. It is not by an additional revelation, and acceptance thereof, that believers come into this standing in grace. It is a place of Divine favor given to every believer the moment he believes. In Chapter 6:14 we are to be told that we are under grace, not law. It is a glorious discovery to find how fully God is for us, in Christ.106

Now, as to this third great matter: We rejoice in hope of the glory of God. This is the future of the believer: to enter upon a glorified state, glorified together with Christ, as it is in Chapter 8:17. It is not merely to behold God’s glory, but to enter into it! “When Christ, who is our life, shall be manifested, then shall we also with Him be manifested in glory” (Col. 3:4). “The glory which thou has given Me I have given unto them” (John 17:22). We shall speak of this further, in its place in Chapter Eight. The translation “exult” rather than “glory,” or “boast,” suits Paul’s meaning here. So in the next verse, we exult in our tribulations. It is an inner, joyful confidence, rather than an outward glorying or boasting before others, although this latter will often necessarily follow!

Verses 3 and 4: And not only so, but we also exult in the tribulations [which beset us]: knowing that tribulation is working out endurance: and endurance [a sense of] approvedness [by God]; and [the sense of] approvedness works out a state of hope—So now we find that not only does the believer look back to peace made with God at the cross; at a God smiling upon him in favor; and forward to his coming glorification with Christ, but he is able also to exult in the very tribulations that are appointed to him. Paul constantly taught, as in Acts 14:22; II Thessalonians 3:3, that “through many tribulations we must enter into the kingdom of God,” and that “we are appointed unto afflictions.” The word means pressure, straits, difficulties; and Paul had them! “Pressed on every side, perplexed, pursued, smitten down”; “in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, in stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labors, in watchings, in fastings; by evil report, . . . as chastened, and not killed; as sorrowful,—yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, and yet possessing all things!” (II Cor. 4:8, 9; 6:4-10). He regarded these as “our light affliction” said he, “which is for the moment, and is working for us more and more exceedingly an eternal weight of glory,” (II Cor. 4:17); and so Paul “took pleasure” in them! (II Cor. 12:10).

We need to take a lesson from the martyrs, who lived in the freshness and strength of the early faith of the Church of God, who often sang in the midst of the flames! We hear today of Just the same courage where persecution and trial are greatest. We can but give here a testimony from Russia that will reach all our hearts. It is a classic on suffering for Christ’s sake.107

The Divine process is as follows: God brings us into tribulations, and that of all sorts; graciously supplying therewith a rejoicing expectation of deliverance in due time; and the knowledge that, as the winds buffeting some great oak on a hillside cause the tree to thrust its roots deeper into the ground, so these tribulations will result in steadfastness, in faith and patient endurance; and our consciousness of steadfastness—of having been brought ‘by grace through the trials,—gives us a sense of Divine approval, or approvedness, we did not before have; and which is only found in those who have been brought through trials, by God’s all-sufficient grace. This sense of God’s approval arouses within us abounding “hope”—we might almost say, hopefulness, a hopeful, happy state of soul.

Verse 5: And [our state of] hope does not make us ashamed: because God’s love [for us] is poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us. Furthermore, then, no matter how much the world or worldly Christians may avoid or deride us, this hopefulness is not “ashamed,” or is not “put to shame”: because there is supplied the inward and wonderful miracle of the consciousness of God’s love shed abroad in our hearts through that second mighty gift of God to us (Christ Himself being the first),—the indwelling Holy Spirit.

Paul now takes up this “love of God” in what is, as regards Gods sheer grace, the highest place in Paul’s epistles. It is the greatest exposition in Scripture of God’s love, as announced in John 3:16: “For God so loved the world .that He gave—.” Ephesians unfolds the marvelous heavenly calling into which God’s grace has brought us. But, as to God’s love itself, what it is, we must come to the present verses of Romans: as John says, “Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that He loved us, and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins” (I John 4:10).

First of all, the indwelling Holy Spirit, given freely to all believers, sheds abroad in our hearts this love of God—making us conscious of it in a direct inner witness: and that especially in times of trial or need.
A THREE-FOLD VIEW OF GOD’S LOVE FOR US—SINNERS

Next, we see three stages of our sinnerhood, each connected in a peculiar, fitting, and touching way with God’s love.

1. Verse 6: For Christ,—we being yet helpless [in our sins], at the appointed time died for ungodly ones—The fact of man’s total moral inability is stated here in the gentlest possible terms. It is a bankruptcy of all moral and spiritual inclination toward God and holiness, as well as of power to be or do good. Yet into a scene of helplessness like this, God sends His Son,—for what? To die for the “ungodly.” No return or response is demanded: it is absolute grace—for the ungodly.

Verse 7: For scarcely for a righteous man will anyone die: though perhaps for a good man some one might even venture to die—Paul proceeds with his wonderful pean of praise concerning God’s love: Among men, while for a sternly honest man no one would die, yet some one might be found to venture death for a “noble” person, one of generous-hearted goodness. But what of God’s love?

2. Verse 8. God commendeth His own love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us—Now “sinning” is a stronger word than “strengthless”: but it is strong in the wrong direction! Strengthless indeed toward God and holiness, we were all; yet vigorous and active in sin. And what did God do? What does God here say? It was while we were thus sinning that Christ died for us! And thus doth God “commend”108 His peculiar love toward us. It is most astonishing, this announcement that God is “commending” this love of His for us,—a love “all uncaused by any previous love of ours for Him.”109 Salesmen “commend” their wares to those whom they deem able and willing to buy them. God “commends” His tender love to us; for He loved us as wretches occupied in sin, unable and unwilling to pay Him or obey Him. This is absolute grace.

3. Verse 10: For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the DEATH of His Son, much more, being reconciled, shall we be saved in His LIFE.

Now, “enemies” is a much worse word than either “strengthless” or “sinners”; it involves a personal alienation and animosity. “The mind of the flesh is enmity against God . . . not subject to the law of God, neither, indeed, can it be.” What a condition! And yet, while we were going about avoiding and hating God, that same God was having His Son, Christ, meet all the Divine claims against us by His death on Calvary!

Mark that, while we were enemies, He did this. No change of our hateful attitude was demanded by God before He sent His Son. “Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that God loved us, and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” Grace, brother, grace,—unasked, undesired, and, of course, forever undeserved,—Divine kindness! “When the kindness of God our Savior, and His love toward man appeared, not by works which we did ourselves, but according to His mercy. He saved us.”

Here, then, whoever you are, read your record: strengthless, sinning, hating: then you can begin to conceive of, if you will believe, this sovereign, uncaused love which God here in this great passage “commends” to you. Do not try to be “worthy” of it; for offers to pay, by an utter bankrupt, are not only worthless, but an insult to grace! Self-righteousness seeks to discover in itself some cause for that Divine favor that God declares has its only source in Himself and His love. “Strengthless”—“sinners”—“enemies”—such were we all, and God sent His Son to die for us as such!

Now let us not dare try to get God to be reconciled to us through our prayers, our consecration, our works. We were reconciled to God while His enemies, through the death of His Son. One who has believed is overwhelmed to find that this reconciliation was effected while he himself was an enemy to God; and so the “much more” gets hold of his heart: I was reconciled by His death while I was an enemy: how much rather, now that I have accepted this reconciliation and share Christ’s own risen life, shall God pour His salvation-favor upon me! I was an enemy then, and God gave Christ for me; now that I am God’s friend, He cannot do less!110

This is the important thing to see, in the matter or reconciliation: it was necessary for us to be reconciled to God Himself, to that holiness and righteousness in God, that was infinitely against sin. This was brought about in Christ’s death.

So, we read, “God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself” (II Cor. 5:19). “While we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of His Son.” All sin is contrary to God’s holiness, righteousness, truth, and glory, but sin was put by God on Christ, and God “spared Him not.” And now God says to His messengers: “Go be ambassadors on behalf of Christ. Tell sinners that I have smitten Him instead of them. Tell them I forsook Him on the cross, that I might not forsake them forever!”
THE FOUR “MUCH MORES

There are in this remarkable chapter four “much mores” which it is interesting and profitable to note. Two are in this first section; and two in the second. First, we have the two “much mores” of future safety; verses 9 and 10; then the two “much mores” of grace’s abundance: verses 15 and 17, which are developed in the other section of the chapter.

Verse 9: Much more then, having been now declared righteous by [means of] His blood, shall we be saved through Him from the [coming] wrath—God has done the harder thing: He will do the easier thing. He has had Christ die for us while we were “yet sinners”; “much more” will He see that we, being now believers and accounted righteous in view of Christ’s blood, shall be saved from the coming wrath through Him (Christ).111

Notice that shed blood is the justifying ground, the procuring cause, of our being accounted righteous; and that instead of our being uncertain of preservation from the wrath which is coming at the Last Judgment, the fact that Christ died for us while were were still sinners should give us a constant state of calm security!

Verse 10: Much more, being reconciled, shall we be saved by His [risen] life—Again, God has done the harder thing—delivering Christ to death to reconcile us to Himself. He will certainly—much more! do the lesser thing for us: He will see that we share Christ’s risen life forever; and thus, even in the hour of visitation upon the wicked, we shall be “saved by His life.” (This will more fully come out in Chapter Eight, where the blessed Spirit supplies that life which is in Christ to us, as a very “law of life.”)

We were reconciled to God by God’s having Christ meet in His death all the claims of His throne,—His majesty, His holiness, His righteousness, His truth. “Much more,” being from our side reconciled, shall we be saved now and in the future by and in Christ’s risen life which we now share!

This “saved by His life” evidently looks forward to the coming Day of Judgment referred to in verse 9112 as the coming wrath, into which judgment our Lord has told us we shall not come (John 5:24). Indeed, Paul writes in I Thessalonians 1:10,—“Jesus, who delivereth us from the wrath to come”!

And now the apostle closes up this section of the Epistle with a note of highest exultation:

Verse 11: And not only so, but we also exult in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the reconciliation—He says. We exult in God. How great a change! Three chapters back, we were sitting in the Divine Judge’s court, guilty—our mouths stopped, and all our works rejected! Now, “through our Lord Jesus Christ” and His work for us, we are rejoicing, exulting, in Him who was our Judge! This is what grace can do and does! And we see that it is simply by receiving the reconciliation that has been brought in by Christ. For the word here is not “atonement,” which means to cover up, and is applied to the Old Testament sacrifices. The word reconciliation here (katallaga) is simply the noun form of the verb “reconcile,” in verse 10. Compare “God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself, not reckoning unto them their trespasses (II Cor. 5:19).

To “receive” a complete, accomplished reconciliation,—how simple! We have seen men and women exult in God, thus! Every believer has this great right of exultation. This is a “song of the Lord” that lasts forever—“through our Lord Jesus Christ”

GOD’S PLAN: THE “REIGN OF GRACETHROUGH CHRIST

Romans 5:12-21

THE TWO MEN

ADAM
CHRIST
} Verse 14.

THE TWO ACTS

ADAM—one trespass: Verses 12,15,17,18,19.

CHRIST—one righteous act (on the cross): Verse. 18.

THE TWO RESULTS

By ADAM—Condemnation, guilt, death: Verses 15, 16, 18, 19.

By CHRIST—Justification, life, kingship: Verses 17, 18, 19.

THE TWO DIFFERENCES

In degree
Verse 15
{ God the Creator’s grace by Christ, abounds beyond the sin of the creature, Adam..

In kind or operation
Verse 16
{

One sin, by Adam—condemnation and reign of death.

Many sins on Christ—justification and “reigning in life” for those accepting God’s grace by Him.

THE TWO KINGS

SIN—reigning through Death: Verse 17.

GRACE—reigning through Righteousness: Verse 21.

THE TWO ABUNDANCES

OF GRACE
OF THE GIFT OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
} Verse 17.

THE TWO CONTRASTED STATES

CONDEMNED MEN, SLAVES OF DEATH, BY ADAM

JUSTIFIED MEN, REIGNING IN LIFE, BY CHRIST

12 Therefore it [salvation through Christ’s work] is just as when through one man sin entered the world, and through the sin, death: and in that way death passed to all men, for that all sinned [in Adam]: for before the Law [of Moses] 13 sin was in the world: but sin is not put to account if there is not law [against it]. 14 Notwithstanding, death reigned-as-king from Adam until Moses, even over those not having sinned after the likeness of the transgression of Adam,—who is a type of the Coming One [Christ].

15 But not as the trespass, so also is the grace-bestowal (charisma). For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the free-gift (dorea) of the One Man. Jesus Christ, abound unto the many! 16 And not as through one that sinned, so is the act of giving (dorema): for the judgment came out of one [trespass] unto condemnation; but the grace-bestowal (charisma) came out of many trespasses unto a righteous [or justifying] act (dikaioma) [at the cross].

17 For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned-as-king through the one, much more those accepting the abundance of grace and of the free-gift (dorea) of righteousness, shall reign-as-kings in life through the One, Jesus Christ!

18 So then just as [the principle was] through one trespass unto all men to condemnation; even so also [the principle is] through one righteous [or justifying] act [dikaioma] unto all men to justification of life! 19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were set down as sinners, even so, through the obedience of the One the many shall be set down as righteous.

20 Law, moreover, came in alongside, that trespass [of law] might abound. But, where the sin abounded, the grace overflowed!

21 In order that, just as sin reigned-as-king by means of death: grace might reign-as-king, through righteousness, unto life eternal, through Jesus Christ our Lord.
THE GREAT DOCTRINE OF THE TWO MEN

We have seen, in Chapters One to Three, the fact of universal human guilt, that all thus are “falling short of God’s glory”; and we have seen Christ set forth by God as a “propitiation through faith in His blood.” We also found that believers were declared righteous; and seen connected with a Risen Christ, in Chapter Four. Then we saw, in the first part of Chapter Five, the blessed results of this “justification by faith.”

When we come to Romans 5:12, a new phase or view of our salvation appears. (Although note our comments on Chapter 3:23.) A general view of the passage will be helpful.

The two men, Adam and Christ, with their distinct federal113 or representative consequences, are before us. It is no longer what we have done—our sins, but the one trespass of Adam that is in view. And it is the work of Christ, also, looked at as an “Adam,”—His “righteous act” of death; with its effect of justification for us. So now we look back to the act that set us down as sinners, instead of to our own deeds; and to the act that sets us down righteous, apart from our own works.

There is no more direct statement in Scripture concerning justification than we find in verse 19: Through the obedience of the One shall the many be constituted righteous [before God]. It is true that up to verse 11 the question has been one of sins rather than the thing sin itself. It is true also that in verse 18, in the expression justification of life, the resurrection-side of salvation is before us. But we need to mark that God, in the great passage from verse 12 to verse 21, grounds our justification wholly in the work of Another than ourselves, even Christ; showing also the incidental place that the Law had—“that the trespass might abound”; thus opening the flood-gates of Grace!

The key word of this great passage is “one.” You will find it as follows (14 times in all) :

“One man”—“one man”—“one man”—verses 12, 15, 19.

“The one”—“the one”—“the One”—verses 15, 17, 19.

“One”—“one”—“one” (trespass) “one” (righteous act)—verses 16 (twice), 18 (twice).

“Through—one act of righteousness”—verse 18. “Through—the obedience of THE ONE”—verse 19.
“Through {

one trespass”—verses 15, 17, 18.

one man’s disobedience”—verse 19.
“Through {

one act of righteousness”—verse 18.

the obedience of THE ONE”—verse 19.

It will never do to go about counting ourselves justified in the sense merely of having our own trespasses, those we have committed, forgiven; for this would amount to counting ourselves as innocent before we personally sinned, and to have become guilty merely because we personally sinned. But this is to forget that we all were made sinners ‘by Adam’s act,—not our own. Nor does this mean that we got a “sinful nature” from our “first parents”: “By nature” we were, indeed, “children of wrath,” Paul tells us in Eph. 2; and David declares: “In sin did my mother conceive me.” But Romans Five does not talk of a nature of sin received by us from Adam, but of our being made guilty by his act. We were so connected with the first Adam that we did not have to wait to be born, or to have a sinful nature; but when Adam, our representative, acted, we acted. Verse 19 plainly says, Through the one man’s disobedience the many were set down as sinners, while the preceding verse says the principle was, through one trespass—unto all men to condemnation.

“Condemnation” is a forensic word, it belongs to the court, not to the birth-chamber.

The same Divine principle is illustrated in the fact that “through Abraham even Levi,” Abraham’s great-grandson, ‘who receiveth tithes, hath paid tithes, for he was yet in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him” (Heb. 7:9). God says of Levi, who was not yet born, whose father was not yet born, whose grandfather (Isaac) was not yet born: “LEVI PAID TITHES!”

The great truth of Romans 5:12 to 21 is that a representative acted, involving those connected with him.

We see immediately how Paul in a seven-fold way insists on the fact that Adam’s act of sin affected his race:

1. Through one man sin entered into the world (vs. 12a).

2. So in that way death passed unto all men, for that all sinned, [when Adam sinned] (vs. 12b).

3. By the trespass of the one the many died (vs. 15).

4. The judgment came out of one [trespass] unto condemnation (vs. 16).

5. By the trespass of the one, death reigned-as-king through the one (vs. 17).

6. Through one trespass [the effect was] towards all men to condemnation (vs. 18).

7. Through the one man’s disobedience the many were set down as [or made to become] sinners (vs. 19).

On the other hand, as regards Christ, we find:

1. That He is also an Adam—a representative or federal Man who acts for all, and in whom all in Him are seen. Adam is called a figure [Greek: typos—type] of Him that was to come—Christ (vs. 14).

2. That by the One Man Jesus Christ, the grace of God, and the free-gift [by that grace] did abound unto the many much beyond the evil results of Adam’s sin (vs. 15).

3. That through our Lord’s one righteous act [His death on the cross] the free-gift goes out to all men to justification of life, just as through [Adam’s] one trespass the judgment came to all men to condemnation (vs. 18).

4. That through the obedience [unto death] of the One [Christ] the many [those who received the gift] shall be set down righteous [before God] (vs. 19).

5. That those who receive the abundance of [God’s] grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign-as-kings in life through the One, Jesus Christ,—much beyond death s reigning through the one [Adam] (vs. 17).

We may now consider this passage briefly, verse by verse:

Verse 12: This whole plan of salvation,—by Christ’s work, not ours, which we have been considering in Chapters Three, Four and Five, gives rise to the “therefore” which introduces this verse: Therefore [this plan of salvation of all by a single Redeemer], is on the same principle as when through [the other] one man sin entered the world; and, with it, its wages, death. Paul proceeds to emphasize that it was in that way,—that is, by one man, that death passed to all men, because when Adam sinned, all sinned. It was a federal representative act. Evidently physical death is primarily in view. “Man’s breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish” (Ps. 146:4). And read carefully the note below.114 So death passed unto all men, for that all sinned—The word “so” refers to the sin of the one man, but the words all sinned must not be read “all have sinned” (as the King James Version unfortunately mistranslates). The whole point is that all acted when Adam acted: all sinned. We have remarked on the aorist tense, “sinned” (Greek: hēmarton) in connection with its use in Chapter Three. To translate it here (5:12) “have sinned” is utterly to obscure the Scripture, making man’s “sinnership” to depend on his own acts rather than on Adam’s—which latter is the whole point of the passage.

Verses 13 and 14: Now comes the remarkable statement that although sin was in the world during the first 2500 years, from Adam to Moses, it is not put to account when there is no law. The Greek word “put to account” used here occurs only one other time—Philemon 18. It signifies to charge up something to anyone as a due. (The wholly different word “reckon” in Chapters 3:24 and 4:23, 24 regards the person; this word in 5:13 regards some item put to one’s account.) It was to Adam, not to us, that God said: “In the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” It was to Israel through Moses that God gave the ten commandments. The general argument of the apostle here is to show the effect of a federal or representative sin, in which an Adam acted, bringing an effect upon the individuals connected with him. Paul is about to prove that death passed to all men not because they sinned, but because Adam sinned. He is also about to show (verse 18) that all men were condemned by Adam’s act,—were made to become sinners.

To understand, therefore, the force of the words, sin is not put to account where there is no law,—or, as Conybeare enlighteningly paraphrases, “Sin is not put to the account of the sinner when there is no law forbidding it,”—we must remember:

1. That sin was in the world, between Adam and Moses.

2. That, according to Chapter One, the race had rejected light and were without excuse; though they were “without law” (anomos): for God’s definition of sin is not “transgression of law” (I John 3:4, A.V.), but anomia, which means refusal to be controlled—self-will.

3. That there was a “work” (working) written in their hearts, to which their consciences bore witness, either accusing or else excusing them; and that this working necessarily corresponded morally to any law to be afterwards revealed by Jehovah.

4. That condign judgments, such as the Flood, and the overthrow of Sodom, and the destruction of the Canaanites, followed the “filling up of the cup of iniquity” at such times: for such sinners both trampled on their own consciences, and inherited the previous generations of guilt.

5. That, nevertheless, the sins between Adam and Moses did not bring about the sentence of death upon humanity, however much individuals or nations might hasten death’s overtaking them. For these people, though they sinned, had not sinned after the likeness of Adam’s transgression, which was a wilful violation of a direct command of a revealed God; as was Israel’s making, through Aaron, the calf at Sinai: evolving judicial consequences to others besides themselves. For we read in Exodus 32:34 of a set future “visitation” on Israel, because of that sin at Sinai of their fathers: “In the day that I visit, I will visit their sin upon them”; this will be in “the time of Jacob’s trouble,” in the Great Tribulation—long after the calf-worship; indeed, still future!

6. We therefore must regard the human race as under a sentence of death they did not bring upon themselves: death reigned from Adam until Moses (vs. 14). Unlike Adam, and unlike Israel after Moses, those who lived between the two had no positive outward Divine law, the breaking of which would be a direct transgression and a threatening of death therefor. Nevertheless “death reigned”—even over them. Constantly before our eyes is the attestation to the same truth: babes that know nothing of right or wrong, die. Every little white coffin,—yea, every coffin, should remind us of the universal effect of that sin of Adam, for it was thus and thus only that “death passed to all men.”

We see then, that from Adam until Moses, death “reigned-as-king”115 on account of Adam’s sin. Paul has said(Rom. 4:15), “Where there is no law neither is there transgression”; so that those between Adam and Moses, not having direct commands of God, consequently had not transgressed known commands as Adam had done. Nevertheless, Adam’s transgression had involved his whole race.

Verse 14: Here Adam is declared a type of the One who was to come—that is, of Christ, the last Adam. We cannot sufficiently urge the study of this great passage: until the mind sees, and the heart understands—and that gladly, condemnation by the one, and justification by the Other. It is just as necessary to see this “by the one” doctrine regarding our spirits, as regarding our bodies. As to the latter, Paul says, “As in Adam all die, so also In Christ shall all be made alive”; “The first man is of the earth, earthy; the second Man is of heaven . . . And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly” (I Cor. 15:22, 47, 49). To discover that we are even now no longer connected with that first Adam in which we were born, but with the Risen Christ, the last Adam—this will be our joy in Chapters Six to Eight. But the foundation of this blessed truth is laid here in the Doctrine of the Two Men.

We find in verses 15 to 17 a sort of parenthesis in which the results of Adam’s trespass and Christ’s act of obedience are shown to differ in two respects (but not at all in the principle of the one involving the many). In the first case (verse 15) there is the difference of degree in the result, because of the infinite chasm between the creature Adam, and the Creator—God and His Son Jesus Christ! So we read:

Verse 15: For if by the trespass of the one [Adam] death came to the many; MUCH MORE did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of THE ONE MAN, JESUS CHRIST, abound unto the many! It takes faith to esteem this true now, seeing, as we do, the cemeteries all about us; death on every hand,—the general dire results of sin; but we must believe that the free gift will finally be seen, in its results, to be as far beyond the results of the trespass, as God and Christ are greater than the creature Adam!116

Verse 16: And not as through one that sinned, so is the act of giving: for the judgment came out of one unto condemnation; but the grace-bestowal came out of many trespasses unto a righteous act. This tells us that out of Adam’s one trespass came judgment, but that out of many trespasses laid upon Christ came not judgment, but a righteous act (dikaioma).117 In short, all men acted,—sinned in Adam’s act of sin. They that receive is on the principle of “the one for the many,” but manifestly does not include all men, because some reject; although we find in verse 18 that the free gift “came” unto them,—“unto all men.”

Note what it is that believing ones “receive”:

First, abundance of grace: The cross having met righteously all the claims of the Divine being, and the Divine throne, against sinners, God has now spoken to us as He is, in abounding grace, for “God is Love.” Over and over are “abound,” “abundance” used here to express God’s attitude; and the free motion, since the cross, of His infinitely loving heart toward sinners, in gracious kindness. Those who “receive” God’s grace give Him the honor of His graciousness.

Second, Those that “receive” this abundance of grace have therewith the gift of righteousness. What a gift! Apart from works, apart from the Law, apart from ordinances, apart from worthiness, an out and out gift of righteousness from God! Many times in teaching this passage to Bible classes I have asked them to repeat three times over each of these expressions: “The abundance of grace,” “the gift of righteousness.” We earnestly commend this to you, dear reader! Try it.

Alas, how few believers have the courage of faith! We have looked so long at our unworthiness that the very thought of pushing away from the shore-lines and launching out on the limitless, fathomless ocean of Divine grace makes us shrink and waver. When some saint here or there does begin to believe the facts and walk in shouting liberty, we say (perhaps secretly), “He must be an especially holy, consecrated man.” No, he is just a poor sinner like you, who is believing in the abundance of grace! And if we hear some one praising God for the gift of righteousness, because he is now righteous in Christ before God, we are ready to accuse him of thinking too highly of himself. No, he is just a poor sinner like you and me, but one who has dared to believe that he has received an outright gift of righteousness, and is rejoicing in it.

Verse 17: For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned-as-king through the one, much more those accepting the abundance of grace and of the free-gift of righteousness, shall reign-as-kings in life through the One, Jesus Christ! It is not only that you have life, and that eternal life, in Christ: but here in verse 17 we find two kingdoms:

First, By the trespass of the one death reigned-as-king through the one. And is that not true? I travelled around this world from west to east, beginning from Chicago. As we went eastward to the older parts of the States, we saw the stones thicker and thicker in the cemeteries. Then in England and Scotland, still more cemeteries, with still more monuments to the reign of death. But when we got out to old China, I was literally appalled at the number of the tombs and the coffins! Surely death has reigned, through Adam!

But second (for the fourth time in this chapter), God now uses the words “much more,” applying them to those who accept the abundance of His grace and of His gift of righteousness, saying these shall reign-as-kings in life through the One, even Jesus Christ. Look now at this expression, reign-as-kings in life. I am writing this during the week of the coronation of George VI of England, and have heard of the splendors with which the ceremony was attended; and we do thank God for the British Empire, and honor, with her subjects, her monarch. But, ah, believer, look closely at these words of Paul, reigning in life. Here is a kingdom before which all of earth is dust. And who are the kings here? Believers! Those whose humble faith has “received the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness”: these shall reign-as-kings through Jesus Christ.

God has “the ages to come” in which to manifest fully this mighty reigning! But it is already begun for those in Christ. Gideon, speaking of certain Israelites, asked the kings of Midian, “What manner of men were they?” “As thou art, so were they,” they answered; “each one resembled the children of a king.” “They shall reign forever and ever,” is God’s description of the saints of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 22:5). And their reign has already, in this life, begun; because they are in Christ the mighty Victor! Satan would fain keep from your ears this news, believer, that you stand in the abundance of God’s grace; that you have received the gift of righteousness in Christ; and that you are to reign-as-a-king-in-life now and forever, through the One, Jesus Christ. May God awaken us to the facts!118 Satan is deathly jealous of the Church of God, which is already in the heavenlies, from which he is soon to be cast out. He knows that the Church will share Christ’s throne and soon reign with Him in indescribable glory. Therefore he will blind you, if he can, to your present place of royal power of life in Christ. It will, we are sure, be a matter of fathomless regret to many Christians, at Christ’s coming, that their lives on earth were characterized by doubt, defeat and depression; rather than by victorious reigning in life in Christ. God has no favorites. Each one who is in Christ has a complete Christ. The exhortations of the Epistles are addressed alike to all. David Livingstone early wrote in his diary, “I have found that I have no unusual endowments of intellect, but I this day resolved that I would be an uncommon Christian.” Concerning such it is written, “Considering the issue of their manner of life, imitate their faith” (Heb. 13:7). Let us refuse to be content with a Christian existence that cannot finally be summed up as “He reigned in life through Jesus Christ,”—over sin, Satan, the world, difficulties, adverse surroundings and circumstances. Let us remember the apostles, the martyrs. Reformers, godly Puritans, the holy Wesleys, and Whitefields, the Havergals and Crosbys; and the humble saints we know, whose existence is described by Paul’s glorious phrase “reigning in life through our Lord Jesus Christ.”

Verse 18: So then, just as [the principle was] through one trespass unto all men to condemnation; even so also through one righteous [or justifying] act [the principle is] unto all men to justification of life! Through one trespass [it was] unto all men to condemnation—The expression “the many” in verses 15 and 19 indicates the principle of the evil effect of the act of the one going forth to others; the expression “all men,” of verse 18, emphasizes the extent of the application of that principle: absolutely all human beings were condemned when Adam sinned.

Now do not question either God’s right or His wisdom here, or His love. He had the right to have a judgment day of our whole race in Eden, in our head, Adam; and He did so. He always does right. Furthermore, He knew that creatures would ever fail,—there is no sufficiency in the creature, but only in the Creator. You and I would fail, as did Adam! and God desired that believers should be secure forever, by Christ’s work. It was in love He held that judgment day in Eden. In love He judged us, condemned us, in our federal head, Adam, that He might justify us in the work and Person of the other federal Head, Christ!

The ordinary conception of justification does not go beyond the pardon of sin. This indeed is first; and we should also have confidence that our sins will never be reckoned against us—whether they be past, present, or future sins. This is seen in Chapter 4:7, 8; and in Chapter 5:9, we see ourselves “justified in His blood,” “justified from all things,” as Paul says in Acts 13:39. But this leaves the believer without a positive standing. We do not come to “justification of life”119 until Chapter 5:18.

Now it is Christ Risen who is made our “standing”: so that, as we see else where, we do not need aught else: for we are in Christ. Justification provides therefore not only release from the penalty of sin, but also a place in the Risen Christ Himself. This begins to be indicated in Chapter Four, where righteousness is reckoned to those who “believe on Him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead.” It is, of course, necessarily comprehended in the astonishing phrase IN CHRIST JESUS,—used first in Chapter 6:11! And it is amplified and developed through the rest of Paul’s epistles. In I Corinthians 1:30 we see that Christ Himself, Risen, was made unto the believer, righteousness. Paul also in Galatians 2:20, 21 directly connects his having been “crucified with Christ” with righteousness. That is, the history in Adam of believers was ended at the cross. (Yet always remember that it was as ungodly ones that they believed!)

In Colossians 1:12 we read: “Giving thanks unto the Father, who made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light.” Then hear again that most stupendous utterance of all: “Him who knew no sin He made to be sin on our behalf; that we might become the righteousness of God in Him” (II Cor. 5:21). It is this glorious revelation, which men have been loathe to read, teach, or refer to, which we must apprehend by God’s grace, and by that grace believe!

Now, how, in what sense, are we “the righteousness of God” in Christ?

It is at once evident that to set us in His own presence in Christ as He has done, God must ( I ) reckon to us the infinitely perfect expiation of Christ in putting away our sin by His blood; (2) make us one with Christ in His death; and (3) place us in Christ Risen, even as Christ is received before Him. All this He has done; so that He says we are the righteousness of God in Christ. If we are in Christ, we are before God in Christ, “even as He,”—“accepted in Him.”

Verse 19: For just as through the disobedience ot the one man the many were set down as sinners, even so, through the obedience of the One the many shall be set down as righteous.

Set down as sinners—the word “sinners,” here, is not an adjective (sinful), but a substantive,—sinners.120 Verse 19 first sums up the doctrine of our federal guilt by Adam’s sin, then sums up our justification by Christ’s death.

The whole emphasis of verses 12 to 19 is upon the fact that the effect, whether in the case of Adam or in the case of Christ was produced by a federal head acting apart from any actions of those affected. There was a judgment held in Eden, by the righteous God, the pronouncement of which is, “unto all men to condemnation.’’121 This, of course, has no reference to eternal damnation, which is a consequence of the rejection of “the Light which has come into the world”—men loving darkness rather than light “because their deeds are evil.” But it does assert a judgment of sinnerhood, by the guilt of Adam’s action, upon the whole human race.

The whole lesson of this passage is, that just as we have Christ only as our righteousness, we have Adam only as sin and death to us. (God’s Word, however, puts Adam’s act and its effect first, as a type of Christ’s work.) We repeat these things over and over, because of their importance, both for our settled peace, and also for our enjoyment of the normal, joyous Christian life.

Even so through the obedience of the One—This was our Lord’s death, as an act of obedience:122 “He became obedient unto death, yea, the death of the cross.” He was of course always obedient to His Father, but it cannot be too strongly emphasized that His life before the cross,—His “active obedience” as it is called, is not in any sense counted to us for righteousness. “I delivered to you,” says Paul, “first of all, that Christ died for our sins.” Before His death He was “holy, guileless, undefiled, separated from sinners.” He Himself said: “Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.” Do you not see that those who claim that our Lord’s righteous life under Moses’ Law is reckoned to us for our “active” righteousness; while His death in which He put away our sins, is, as they claim, the “passive” side, are really leaving you, and the Lord too, under the authority of the Law?

“Justified in (the value or power of) His blood,” and of that alone, gives the direct lie to the claim that man must have “an active righteousness” as well as “a passive righteousness.” The specious assertion is, that “inasmuch as we have all broken the Law (although God says that Gentiles were ‘without law’—and those in Christ are not under it!) and inasmuch as man cannot by his works himself recover his righteous standing, Christ, forsooth, came and kept The Law in man’s place (!); and then went to the cross and suffered the penalty of death for man’s guilt so that the result is an ‘active righteousness’ reckoned to man:—that is, Christ’s keeping The Law in man’s place; and, second, a ‘passive righteousness,’ which consists in the putting away of all guilt by the blood of Christ.”

Now, the awful thing here is the unbelief concerning man’s irrecoverable state before God. For not only must Christ’s blood be shed in expiation of our guilt; but we had to die with Christ. We were connected with the old Adam; and the old man—all we had and were in Adam, must be crucified—if we were to be “joined to Another, even to Him that was raised from the dead.” Theological teaching since the Reformation has never set forth clearly our utter end in death with Christ, at the cross.

The fatal result of this terrible error is to leave The Law as claiment over those in Christ: for, “Law has dominion over a man as long as he liveth” (7:1). Unless you are able to believe in your very heart that you died with Christ, that your old man was crucified with Him, and that you were buried, and that your history before God in Adam the first came to an utter end at Calvary, you will never get free from the claims of Law upon your conscience.123

I say again, that the Law was given to neither Adam. The first Adam had life: God did not give him law whereby to get life! Not until Moses did the Law come in, and then only as an incidental thing to reveal to man his condition. The Law was not given to the first Adam, nor to the human race; but to Israel only (Deut. 4:5-8; 33:1-5; Ps. 147:19, 20). Again, the Law was not given to the Last Adam! “The Last Man Adam became a life-giving spirit”: this is Christ, Risen from the dead, at God’s right hand, communicating spiritual life. Is He under law? It is only the desperate legality of man’s heart, his self-confidence, that makes him drag in the Law, and cling to the Law,—even though Christ must fulfil it for him! “Vicarious law-keeping” is Galatian heresy!

Our Lord said plainly that His work in this world was to die: “The Son of Man came to give His life a ransom”; and indeed, “through the Eternal Spirit He offered Himself without blemish unto God.” True, He must be a spotless Lamb. But for what? For sacrifice! He did not touch our case, had no connection with us, until God laid our sins upon Him and made Him to become sin for us at the cross. Christ was not one of our race, “the sons of men”: He was the Seed of the woman, not the man. He was the Son of Man, indeed, for God prepared for Him a body (Ps. 40; Heb. 10), by the power of the Holy Spirit (Luke 1:35). But, though He moved among sinners, He was “separated from sinners,” and had no connection with them ‘until God made Him their sin offering at the cross.

Christ Himself, Risen, is our righteousness. His earthly life under the Law is not our righteousness. We have no connection with a Christ on earth and under the Law. We are expressly told in Rom. 7:1-6, that even Jewish believers who have been under law were made dead to the Law by the Body of Christ, that they might be joined to Another, even to Him who was raised from the dead. One has beautifully said, “Christianity begins with the resurrection.”

Verse 20: Law, moreover, came in alongside [of sin] that the trespass [of law] might abound—The reference to law here shows that Paul has justification from guilt, and not our state of sinfulness, in view. “Law entered alongside” (pareisēlthen)124 not, in this connection, to reveal sinfulness, but thatthe trespass of law,—the act of law-breaking might abound. The Law, being given to neither Adam, came in alongside sin,—after sin had been there 2500 years, that vain self-confident Israel (as a public example for us all!) might see God’s standard for those in the first Adam, and promising to obey it, fail; and thus know sin in order that Grace might overflow. That so, where sin had reigned, Grace might reign-as-king, through the righteous work of Christ on the cross, unto eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Thus neither our sins nor our “sinful nature” has, in this passage, anything to do with our condemnation: but Adam’s act only. And not our new life in Christ, nor our walking in the good works unto which we are created (Eph. 2:10), has anything to do with constituting us righteous, but Christ’s act of death only (vv. 18, 19). As we have said, law “came in alongside,”—not as in any sense a means of salvation, but that Israel (and through Israel, all of us) might discover guiltiness by breaking law; for law gives no power to keep law!

But, where sin abounded, grace did completely overflow. Grace began to work for Israel immediately after the Law was broken! For instead of cutting off Israel as a nation, God appointed Moses a mediator; and when sin came to a climax with the Jews’ crucifying their Messiah, the Lord’s words were “Father, forgive them.” And as we shall read in Chapter Eleven, God will indeed yet forgive them,—will take away their sins and “bring in everlasting righteousness.” Grace will yet over flow for Israel, nationally, as it has now overflowed to us as individual sinners, both Jews and Gentiles.

“Where sin abounded, grace overflowed,” for such is ever the result of the work of the cross. Paul, who had been Christ’s greatest enemy, the chief of sinners, declares himself to be the great example of mercy and grace: “I obtained mercy,” he says “that in me as chief might Jesus Christ show forth all His long-suffering, for an example of them that should hereafter believe on Him unto eternal life.” And again: “By the grace of God I am what I am” (I Cor. 15:10; I Tim. 1:16).

We might turn to David and Manasseh in the Old Testament as examples of the overflowing heart of mercy of God. Or we might call up such examples in Church History as the reckless profligate Augustine, whom God made a shining light in His Church; or John Bunyan, the profane tinker, who wrote his wonderful experience of the Divine goodness in “Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners”; or John Newton, once a libertine and infidel, “a servant of slaves in Africa,” as he wrote of himself for his epitaph,—whom God transformed into one of the great vessels of mercy of the eighteenth century, and whose hymns of praise all the saints sing. It was Newton who wrote:

“Amazing grace! how sweet the sound

That saved a wretch like me.”

and who told his own experience—so really that of all the saints—in the words of the beautiful hymn:

“In evil long I took delight

Unawed by shame or fear,

Till a new object met my sight,

And stopped my wild career.

“I saw One hanging on a tree,

In agonies and blood;

Who fixed His languid eyes on me,

As near His cross I stood.

“Sure, never till my latest breath,

Can I forget that look;

It seemed to charge me with His death,

Though not a word He spoke.

“My conscience felt and owned the guilt,

And plunged me in despair,

I saw my sins His blood had spilt,

And helped to nail Him there.

“Alas, I knew not what I did,

But all my tears were vain;

Where could my trembling soul be hid,

For I the Lord had slain!

“A second look He gave, that said,

‘I freely all forgive!

This blood is for thy ransom paid,

I died that thou mayest live.’”

On November 18, 1834, Robert Murray McCheyne, of St. Peter’s Free Church, Dundee, Scotland, whose memory is like ointment poured forth, wrote his remarkable confession that his sins had caused Christ’s death. The title, “Jehovah Tsidkēnu,” is the Hebrew for “The Lord Our Righteousness.” Let it serve our use also, as it has that of thousands:

JEHOVAH TSIDKĒNU

“I once was a stranger to grace and to God,

I knew not my danger, and felt not my load;

Though friends spoke in rapture of Christ on the tree,

Jehovah Tsidkēnu was nothing to me.

“I oft read with pleasure, to soothe or engage,

Isaiah’s wild measure, and John’s simple page;

But e’en when they pictured the blood-sprinkled tree,

Jehovah Tsidkēnu seemed nothing to me.

“Like tears from the daughters of Zion that roll,

I wept when the waters went over His soul;

Yet thought not that my sins had nailed to the tree

Jehovah Tsidkēnu—’twas nothing to me.

When free grace awoke me, with light from on high

Then legal fears shook me, I trembled to die;

No refuge, no safety, in self could I see,—

Jehovah Tsidkēnu my Savior must he.

“My terrors all vanished before the sweet Name;

My guilty fears banished, with boldness I came

To drink at the fountain, life-giving and free—

Jehovah Tsidkēnu is all things to me.

“Jehovah Tsidkēnu! my treasure and boast;

Jehovah Tsidkēnu! I ne’er can be lost;

In Thee I shall conquer, by flood and by field—

My cable, my anchor, my breastplate and shield!”

We might multiply examples like these: but these words, “Where sin abounded, grace did completely overflow,” with the salvation of Saul of Tarsus as the Scripture example, will suffice. I stood on the bluff at Memphis, Tennessee, and saw the mighty Mississippi, normally a mile wide, stretch over forty miles in flood, covering deep under its multitude of waters the land as far as I could see. So, where sin abounded, the grace of God overflowed everything.125

Verse 21: In order that, just as sin reigned-as-king by means of death: grace might reign-as-king, through righteousness, unto life eternal, through Jesus Christ our Lord. This verse unfolds God’s great object: that Grace should have a kingdom where Death had had its kingdom: and that, of course, through righteousness,—that is, that all Divine claims should be first righteously met at the cross, and thus that all should be “through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The question of justification is still on in Chapter Five, and not until Chapter Six is “our old man”—all we were from Adam—brought in. Furthermore, to bring into Chapter Five our sinful state by nature, is to confuse our sinful condition with that condemnation which over and over God says was brought about by Adam’s single act, and by that only. “The judgment came of ONE TRESPASS unto condemnation,” etc.

Now if you and I were condemned in Adam’s sin, it is plain that to be justified we must be cleared not only of our own sins, but of our condemnation in Adam: our justification must cover all our condemnation.

Our justification, is, therefore, in this great passage, related not to our personal sins, as in Chapters Three and Four; but to our guilt by and in Adam, from which we are cleared by Christ’s death. And Christ being now raised, we, connected with Him at the cross, now share His life: so that our justification is called “justification of life” (vs. 18).

It is true that we are not spoken of as “in Christ” until Chapter Six, where death with Christ is unfolded and our history in the first Adam, and our relation to sin, ended. But Paul speaks of being “justified in Christ” (Gal. 2:17). And certainly the subject in the last section of Chapter Five is justification: condemnation by Adam’s trespass, and justification by Christ’s righteous act of death.

Thus, not until we come to Chapter Six is our walk, our sanctification, taken up. It is true that the doctrine of the two men (5:12-21) makes possible of understanding the great fact of Chapter Six,—that we died with Christ. But the subject of the latter section of Chapter Five is condemnation by Adam, justification by Christ.

103
As to the Greek text having the subjunctive in verse 1, we believe that the Authorized Version and the American Revised Version are correct in reading “we have peace” rathe

r than the English Revised Version, “Let us have peace.” See Jamieson, Fausset and Brown, Darby, Meyer, Godet and many others. The whole context proves that “we have peace” is correct, for the passage is not an exhortation, but an assertion of facts and results, true of all those declared righteous or justified.

104
The Romanist will go to “mass” and “confession”; and the Protestant “attend church”; but neither will find peace with God by these things. Prayers, vows, fastings, church duties, charities—what have these to do with peace?—if Christ “made Peace by His blood”!

105
The difference may be brought out by asking ourselves two questions: First. Have I peace with God? Yes; because Christ died for me. Second, Have I the peace of God in quietness from the anxieties and worries of life in my heart? We see at once that being at peace with God must depend on what was done for us by Christ on the cross. It is not a matter of experience, but of revelation. On the contrary, the peace of God “sets a garrison around our hearts and thoughts in Christ Jesus,” when we refuse to be anxious about circumstances, and “in everything (even the most ‘trifling’ affairs) by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let our requests be made known unto God.” Every ‘believer is at peace with God, because of Christ’s shed blood. Not every believer has this “peace of God” within him; for not all have consented to judge anxious care and worry as unbelief in God’s Fatherly kindness and care.

106

Sanday quotes Ellicott’s translation: “Through whom also we have had our access,” and adds, “‘have had’ when we first became Christians, and now while we are such.”

And Darby comments: “We are not called on to believe that we do believe, but to believe that Jesus is the Son of God, by whom we have access, and are brought into perfect present favor, every cloud that could hide God’s love removed; and can rejoice in hope of the glory of God.”

107

1. A letter that lately came out of Northern Siberia, signed “Mary,” reads: “The best thing to report is, that I feel so happy here. It would be so easy to grow bitter if one lost the spiritual viewpoint and began to look at circumstances. I am earning to thank God for literally everything that comes. I experienced so many things that looked terrible, but which finally brought me closer to Him. Each time circumstances became lighter, I was tempted to break fellowship with the Lord. How can I do otherwise than thank Him for additional hardships? They only help me to what I always longed for—a continuous, unbroken abiding in Him. Every so-called hard experience is just another step higher and closer to Him.”

Another recent letter from “Mary” reads, “I am still in the same place of exile. There is a Godless Society here; one of the members became especially attached to me. She said, “I cannot understand what sort of a person you are; so many here insult and abuse you, but you love them all” . . . She caused me much suffering, but I prayed for her earnestly. Another time she asked me whether I could love her. Somehow I stretched out my hands toward her, we embraced each other, and began to cry. Now we pray together. My dear friends, please pray for her. Her name is Barbara”

In a letter a month later, “Mary” writes; “I wrote you concerning my sister in Christ, Barbara. She accepted Christ as her personal Savior, and testified before all about it. We both, for the last time, went to the meeting of the Godless. I tried to reason with her not to go there, but nothing could prevail. She went to the front of the hall, and boldly testified before all concerning Christ. When she finished she started to sing in her wonderful voice a well-known hymn,

‘I am not ashamed to testify of Christ, who died for me,

His commandments to follow, and depend upon His cross!’

The very air seemed charged! She was taken hold of and led away.”

Two months later, another letter came from “Mary”: “Yesterday, for the first time, I saw our dear Barbara in prison. She looked very thin, pale, and with marks of beatings. The only bright thing about her were her eyes, bright, and filled with heavenly peace and even joy. How happy are those who have it! It comes through suffering. Hence we must not be afraid of any sufferings or privations. I asked her, through the bars, ‘Barbara, are you not sorry for what you have done?’ ‘No,’ she firmly responded, ‘If they would free me, I would go again and tell my comrades about the marvelous love of Christ. I am very glad that the Lord loves me so much and counts me worthy to suffer for Him.’” The Link

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“Proves, as in 3:5” (Meyer); “establishes” (Godet); “confirms” (Calvin); “manifests” (Haldane); “gives proof of” (Alford); “demonstrates” (Williams); “commendeth” (Sanday). The English word “commendeth” happily covers the double meaning of the Greek: (1) approving or establishing things, and (2) recommending persons (16:1).

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“In sovereign grace He rises above the sin, and loves without a motive, save what is in His own nature and part of His glory. Man must have a motive for loving, God has none but in Himself, and ‘commendeth His love to us’ (and the ‘His’ is emphatic as to this very point), in that, while we are yet sinners, Christ died for us; the best thing in heaven that could be given for the vilest, most defiled, and guilty sinners” (Darby).

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To illustrate reconciliation:

Suppose I am the master of a school and I make a rule that there is to be no profane swearing. I write that rule on the blackboard, and the whole school sees and hears it. The penalty I announce, too: there is to be a whipping if any one breaks the rule.

Now, there is a boy named John Jones in my school, a boy I am fond of. At recess-time he swears. Everybody hears him; I hear him; everybody knows I hear him. When I call the school to order, all the scholars are looking at me to see what I will do.

I have a son of my own in that school room, a beloved son, Charles. I call him, and we go outside to counsel, while the school waits. I say, “Son, will you bear John Jones’ whipping for him? He doesn’t believe that I love him. He thinks I hate him because he has broken my rule. There must be a whipping. I must be true to my word, but you know how I love John.” My son says, “Yes, father, I’ll do anything for you that you wish. And I love John Jones, too.”

I bring my boy, Charles, out before the whole school, and I say, “This is John Jones whipping I am giving to my son Charles. The law of the school was broken by John Jones. I am putting the penalty on my boy. He says he will gladly do this for me, and for John.” Then I whip my son Charles; and I do not spare him. I whip him just as if he were John Jones, just as if he had broken the rule himself.

When the whipping is over, I say to some scholar, “Go and tell John Jones I have nothing against him,—nothing at all. And ask him to come and give me his hand.” This breaks John Jones up, and he comes forward, in tears, and says, “I didn’t know you loved me that much! I thank you from my heart!”

Now he is reconciled from his side, to me. But you see I reconciled him to myself, first. I had to deal with his disobedience, or be myself unrighteous.

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1.Concerning Christ’s bearing in our place God’s wrath against sin, let us say:

To regard God as “angry,” or as demanding that Christ suffer “the exact equivalent of all the agonies the elect would have suffered to all eternity,” is to miss the whole meaning of propitiation.

1. Remember it is God Himself who “loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” God held no enmity against us. God loved us.

2. Therefore, strictly speaking, it was not punishment which Christ bore on the cross, but wrath. Punishment is personal,—against the offender; but wrath upon Christ was against the thing—sin. Christ bore that wrath which God’s being and nature always and forever sustains toward sin. The sinner cannot come nigh Him, but must die, must perish in His holy presence,—not because God hates him, but because God is the Holy One. Therefore did Christ die,—and that forsaken of God under wrath—because He was bearing our sins in His own body on the tree. So it was, that, sin being placed on Christ, judgment and wrath fell upon Him. So it is, also, that the believer has not been “appointed unto wrath” (I Thess. 5:9): the wrath has fallen on Christ.

3. The conception that Christ on the cross was enduring all the agonies of the elect for all eternity grew directly out of the Romish legalism from which the Reformers did not escape,—to wit: that we still have connection with our responsibilities in Adam the first; that our history was not ended at the cross. But the shed blood brought in before God on the Day of Atonement simply witnessed ‘that a life had been laid down, ended. “The sufferings of all the elect for all eternity” could never take the place of the laid down life of the great Sacrifice. God did not ask for agonies: sin simply could not approach Him! There must be banishment of the sinner from His presence—unless a substitute should come, who, taking the place of the sinner, and bearing his sin, could lay down his life. Such was Christ. He “laid down His life that He might take it again,” But remember both parts of this great utterance: (a) “He laid down His life,” bearing our sin, putting it away from God’s presence forever. But even Christ, when bearing our sin, could not, as it were, come nigh God, but was forsaken, under holy wrath against sin. Not the agonies of Christ could avail, but that, bearing sin, He laid His life down, poured out His soul unto death. Thus He owned God’s holiness to be absolute and infinite, and said, “It is finished.” (b) Now in taking up His life again, it was not that life which, according to Leviticus 17:11, was “in the blood,” because the blood was “all one with the life” (Lev. 17:14), and therefore “given to make atonement for souls,”; “it was not the blood-life” which He took up, but newness of life” in resurrection!

God indeed permitted man to inflict the terrible sufferings of crucifixion upon His Son. But those sufferings were not “the cup” that His Father had given Him drink. The cup was the cup of Divine wrath against sin, and it involved His being “cut off out of the land of the living” under the hand of Divine judgment.

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The Greek preposition en in verse 9, is not fully or exactly rendered by tht English word “in”; for the Greek en here includes: in the shed blood of Christ (vs. 9), as the ground before God of our justification; in view of that blood’s power as seen by God the Justifier; in the eternal availingness of that blood before God; and the consequent eternal redemption it has procured.

Likewise, in the same construction in verse 10, we translate, “in His life”: meaning that the believer shares that risen life of Christ; that in the power of that endless life the believer will abide both now and forever: as John says, “we may have boldness in the day of judgment; because as He is, even so are we in this world,”

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Federal: in this book we use this word as indicating the action of one for all in a representative manner; or for the consequences of such action.

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Death is a Divine decree: “It is appointed unto men once to die and after this cometh judgment,” Death involves four consequences:

First, the utter ending of what we call human life.

Second, falling consciously into the fearful hands of that power under which men have during their lifetime lightly lived, unprotected from the indescribable terrors and horrors connected therewith.

Third, being imprisoned in Sheol or Hades—in “the pit wherein is no water,” as was Dives in Luke 16. Compare Zech. 9:11.

fourth, exposure to the coming judgment and its eternal consequences. Of course, the believer is rescued from all this—even physical death,—from bodily. “falling asleep,” if Christ comes during his lifetime! while it is true of all saints, those who keep Christ’s word, that they shall “never see death” (John 8:51). Death and judgment are past for the believer, Christ his Substitute having endured them.

Nevertheless, in this day of mad pleasure-seeking, it certainly behooves all of us to reflect on the fearful realities connected with death! (See also Note on Chapter 6:23.)

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We say, “reigned-as-king,” because the Greek word means that. Not the power of sin to hold in bondage, as in Chapter Six, is here meant; but the royal word, basileuo, is used, denoting sovereignty, not mere lordship.

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David Brown (in Jamieson, Fausset and Brown’s excellent commentary) disagrees here, saying: “The ‘much more’ here does not mean that we get much more of good by Christ than of evil by Adam (for it is not a case of quantity at all); but, that we have much more reason to expect,—or, it is much more agreeable to our ideas of God, that the many should be benefited by the merits of one; and, if the latter has happened, ‘much more’ may we assure ourselves of the former.”

But after all this does not disagree with what we have above said, for it is Adam, the sinning creature, on the one hand; and the infinitely great and good God, and His grace by His Son Christ, on the other. Measure, quantity, must enter in: as, indeed, in saying of God “we have much more reason to expect,” Dr. Brown tacitly admits. “Much more,” says Paul, “did the grace”—of whom? GOD. This emphasizing God brings out everything!

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To the student of Greek (and to others, also), it is most instructive to note Paul’s use of the words connected with righteousness: dikaios means righteous; dikaiosune means righteousness; dikaioō is to declare righteous; dikaiōsis means justification, or the act of declaring one righteous; dikaiōma, the “righteous act,” that makes justification possible.

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When Israel inquired of the Lord about Saul, the eon of Kish, who had been anointed as their King (for they could not find him), the Lord answered, you remember’ “Behold, he hath hid himself among the stuff.” “And they ran and fetched him thence” (I Sam. 10:22-23). How sad if some of us who have received the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness, and whom God desires to be reigning in life in Christ, have gotten ourselves hidden “among the stuff,”—of earthly goods, and ambitions, “religious” traditions, and the literature of this world!

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The expression “justification of life” seems to stand over against that condemnation and death which came by Adam’s trespass. It is a characterizing word: What is offered unto all men, through Christ’s act of righteousness at the cross is not only a cancellation of guilt, but life in the Risen One. For, since Adam’s sin, there was only spiritual death in his race. The words of John 1:4, regarding Christ, “In Him was life,” describe the only source of life for man. And justification must be of life: for those justified are most certainly taken, out of their place of death in Adam, and given a place of life in Christ.

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The Greek word (hamartōlos) means not merely one possessed of a sinful nature or tendency, but one who is regarded as having committed sin. The same word is used in 3:7 and 5:8.

“Substantive, hamartōlos, a sinner; common acceptance, LXX, New Testament, etc.”—Liddell and Scott. This word is used in N.T. to designate sinners 41 times’ beginning with Matthew 9:10; five times in Luke 15:1-31, and four times in John 9:1-41; and only four times in an adjectival sense (Mark 8:38; Luke 5:8; 24:7; Rom 7:13).

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Human reasoning is futile and dangerous here. Men form themselves into “schools of theology” over this subject, each founding a “system” upon his notion of how Adam’s trespass affected all. But that a man may act before he is born in person of his responsible forbear is evident, as we have shown, in the case of Levi, in Heb. 7:9.

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Vaughan (as so frequently) gives a rendering of startling accuracy concerning disobedience and obedience in verse 19: “The one (parakoees) is properly, mishearing; the other, hupakoees, submissive hearing.” Disobedience in its essence is refusal to hearken; and obedience is bowing the ear to submissive listening.

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“Both Calvinists and Arminians think that the flesh is not so bad that it cannot be acted on for God by Christ using the Law of God and giving it power through the Spirit”—This is Wm. Kelly’s shrewd and correct comment.

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It is very striking to note that in verse 13 where we read “through one man sin entered into the world,” the word for entered is eisēlthen; and now law enters alongside,—the word being the same—eisēlthen—with the preposition para, alongside, prefixed. And so, “through law is the knowledge of sin.” Sin entered, and law, entering alongside, revealed the sin.

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Two entirely different Greek words are translated, in the Authorized Version, “abounded.” But the first, used of sin, means to increase, he augmented; while the Second, used of grace, means to abound beyond measure, to overflow. Second (Thayer) These words come from entirely different roots, and should have been so distinguished in translation. But one who undertakes to express in English the depth of the Hebrew, and the extent of the Greek language, will soon discover the frequent poverty of the English tongue. Hebrew seems to be the language in which God first spoke with men; it is the vehicle of praise. But to the Greeks He gave that great intellectual development of their “Golden Age” in which their endeavor to perfect their language extended even to public assemblies where the most exact possible phrasing to express an idea was decided by contest. So when our Lord came as “the Savior of the World,” that coming, according to the grand old Hebrew prophecies, was recorded in the Greek, which Alexander the Great had spread throughout the known world. The Romans, to whom had been given the power to govern, themselves admitted that they must borrow from the Greeks not only their philosophy, but also their method and manner of literary expression. Then also when the Roman Empire went into collapse, and the dark “Middle Ages” came in, the so-called Renaissance was the bringing of the Greek classics into crude Europe after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. And above all, the translation directly from the Greek New Testament manuscripts of our English Scriptures; for men had so long depended upon the faulty Latin (or Vulgate) translation.

Perhaps the greatest wonder the last century and a quarter has seen is the translation into over 800 tongues and dialects of these same Hebrew and Greek Scriptures—with such transforming power that It is written of one Bible-bearing missionary, a man of God, in the South Sea Islands: “When he came, there were no Christians; when he left, there were no heathen.”

How wonderful that God should have a language of spiritual praise and worship—the Hebrew; and a language exact, intellectually rich,—the Greek, in which He could express the great doctrines concerning His Son! And both languages capable of being reproduced as to their spirit and meaning, not only in English, German, and French, but in the dialects of the most benighted heathen tribes,— “every man in his own language.”